Inushaa posted an Question
January 01, 2022 • 15:20 pm 30 points
  • CSIR NET
  • Life Sciences

2. structure and function of different types of rna

2. Structure and function of different types of RNA with diagrams

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  • Priya sarda best-answer

    Of the many types of RNA, the three most well-known and most commonly studied are messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which are present in all organisms. These and other types of RNAs primarily carry out biochemical reactions, similar to enzymes. Some, however, also have complex regulatory functions in cells. Owing to their involvement in many regulatory processes, to their abundance, and to their diverse functions, RNAs play important roles in both normal cellular processes and diseases. In protein synthesis, mRNA carries genetic codes from the DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes, the sites of protein translation in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and protein. The ribosome protein subunits are encoded by rRNA and are synthesized in the nucleolus. Once fully assembled, they move to the cytoplasm, where, as key regulators of translation, they “read” the code carried by mRNA. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA specifies incorporation of a specific amino acid in the sequence that makes up the protein. Molecules of tRNA (sometimes also called soluble, or activator, RNA), which contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, bring the specified amino acids to the ribosomes, where they are linked to form proteins. In addition to mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNAs can be broadly divided into coding (cRNA) and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). There are two types of ncRNAs, housekeeping ncRNAs (tRNA and rRNA) and regulatory ncRNAs, which are further classified according to their size. Long ncRNAs (lncRNA) have at least 200 nucleotides, while small ncRNAs have fewer than 200 nucleotides. Small ncRNAs are subdivided into micro RNA (miRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small-interfering RNA (siRNA), and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA). The miRNAs are of particular importance. They are about 22 nucleotides long and function in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. They can inhibit (silence) gene expression by binding to target mRNA and inhibiting translation, thereby preventing functional proteins from being produced. Many miRNAs play significant roles in cancer and other diseases. For example, tumour suppressor and oncogenic (cancer-initiating) miRNAs can regulate unique target genes, leading to tumorigenesis and tumour progression. Also of functional significance are the piRNAs, which are about 26 to 31 nucleotides long and exist in most animals. They regulate the expression of transposons (jumping genes) by keeping the genes from being transcribed in the germ cells (sperm and eggs). Most piRNA are complementary to different transposons and can specifically target those transposons. Circular RNA (circRNA) is unique from other RNA types because its 5′ and 3′ ends are bonded together, creating a loop. The circRNAs are generated from many protein-encoding genes, and some can serve as templates for protein synthesis, similar to mRNA. They can also bind miRNA, acting as “sponges” that prevent miRNA molecules from binding to their targets. In addition, circRNAs play an important role in regulating the transcription and alternative splicing of the genes from which circRNAs were derived.

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