and not not for oluntary other stimul ung in which which a stim responses. Oy another cquires the ca acity to evoke four essential elements of the learni Pavlov identified earning processe They are: TUnconditioned stimulus (UCS): The natural stimulus that elicits a natural response. In Pavlov's expenment, (1) the meat powder was the UCS. Unconditioned response (UCR): The natural response elicited to the natural stimulus. In Pavlov's experiment, (ii) the salivation was the UCR. (iii) Conditioned stimulus (CS): The neutral stimulus that does not naturally elicit the target response, but may do so after being associated with the UCS for a number of times. In Pavlov's experiment, the light or the sound of the bell was the CS. iv) Conditioned response (CR): The target response similar to the UCR that originally occurred to the UCS only but after conditioning occurred to CS, even in the absence of the UCS. In Pavlov's experiment, the salivation that occurred in response to the light or bell was the CR. You must remember here that the UCR and the CR are similar but not the same. Pavlov noticed that the amount of salivation was less in response to the light / bell in comparison to the original salivation in response to meat powder. Pavlov used the term 'acquisition' to denote the new learning, In classical conditioning the acquisition occurs due to temporal contiguity of the stimuli, or association in time. In the following section we would see how varying this association may influence the learnt behaviour. Principles of Classical Conditioning ) Reinforcement is an event or a condition that increases the likelihood of a specified response. In the classical In the classical conditioning paradigm, when a conditioned stimulus ceases to be paired with an unconditioned stimulus for a number of times the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. This is conditioning paradigm, the unconditioned stimulus itself acts as reinforcement. i) known as extinction. - UCS In the classical conditioning paradigm, spontaneous recovery is the sudden reappearance of the conditioned (111) response following a rest period after extinction. (iv) In classical conditioning paradigm, discrimination refers to the condition where an organism learns to produce a conditioned response to one stimulus, but not to another similar stimulus, as the latter has been systematically kept non-reinforced. (v) Counter conditioning is a replacement of an undesirable conditioned response by a desirable one, by changing the association of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.