Inushaa posted an Question
October 26, 2021 • 16:30 pm 30 points
  • CSIR NET
  • Life Sciences

Disease conditions in cows and mention how they affect the milk yield. discuss about symptoms and measures taken to treat or present the

disease conditions in cows and mention how they affect the milk yield. discuss about symptoms and measures taken to treat or present the discuss about Riderpest ,Mastitis,Bloating tuberculosis, ketosis

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    Rinderpest (RP) Rinderpest is an acute, highly contagious, fatal viral disease of cattle, buffalo and wild ruminants manifested by inflammation, haemorrhage, erosions of the digestive tract, wasting and often bloody diarrhoea. Some swine species are also susceptible. Man is not susceptible to RP virus. Transmission : Direct contact with infected animals or their excretions and secretions and fomites. The virus appears in the blood and in secretions before the onset of clinical signs and this may cause infection in abattoirs and stockyards. Antemortem findings : Incubation: 3 – 10 days or longer Morbidity: Up to 100 % in a susceptible herd Mortality: 50 % and may reach 90 – 95 % High fever (41–42°C) Nasal discharge and excessive salivation Punched out erosions in the mouth (Fig. 47) Loss of appetite and depression Abdominal pain (grunting, arched back) Constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea and straining Dehydration and rough hair coat Marked debility Abortion The classical “milk fever position” in cattle Postmortem findings : Punched out erosions in the oesophagus Edema or emphysema of the lungs Haemorrhage in the spleen, gallbladder and urinary bladder Haemorrhagic or ulcerative lesions in the omasum Congested abomasum filled with bloody fluid. Ulcers may also be observed. Severe congestion and haemorrhage in the intestine and enlarged and necrotic Peyer's patches (Fig. 48) Last portion of the large intestine and rectum are haemorrhagic showing “tiger stripping” of longitudinal folds Enlarged and edematous lymph nodes Emaciated carcass Judgement : The carcass derived from a feverish and debilitated animal showing the sign of acute disease on antemortem examination should be condemned. In the areas free of RP and in zones where final stages of eradication exist, the animals are also condemned. In endemic zones, if acute symptoms of the disease are not present during clinical examination, the carcass may have limited distribution. In areas affected with outbreak which are protected by vaccination, heat treatment of meat is suggested if economically worthwhile. The affected organs are condemned. Remarks : Rinderpest virus is sensitive to environmental changes and is destroyed by heat, drying and great number of disinfectants. Vesicular stomatitis (VS) This is a viral disease of ruminants, horses and swine characterized by vesicular lesions of the mouth, feet and teats. VS virus has two immunologically distinct serotypes, Indiana and New Jersey. Transmission : In susceptible animals, contamination of pre-existing abrasions with saliva or lesion material, by ingestion of contaminated pasture or during milking within dairy herds. Mechanical transmission by biting arthropods is also a possibility. The virus is isolated from mites, tropical sand flies and mosquitos. Antemortem findings : Fever Mouth lesions in cattle and horses Vesicles tend to disappear quickly and only papules may be seen in cattle outbreaks. Marked weight loss and cessation of lactation in dairy cows. Chewing movements and profuse salivation Refuse food but eagerly accept water Horses rub lips on edges of mangers Foot lesions occur in about 50 % cases in cattle. Lameness Teat lesion may occur in all species. Postmortem findings : The skin and mucous membrane lesions resemble the lesions of other vesicular diseases. Secondary bacterial or fungal infections Mastitis Judgement : The carcass of an animal affected with vesicular stomatitis is approved if the disease is not in the acute stage and secondary changes are not present. Parts of the affected carcass and organs are condemned. A carcass showing acute changes and systemic lesions is condemned. If VS is not confirmed by laboratory examination, the judgement will be the same as for the FMD. What is bovine TB? Bovine TB is a disease caused by a specific type (species) of bacteria called M. bovis.  Bovine TB usually affects animals such as cattle, but it can affect practically all mammals causing a general state of illness, coughing and eventual death. It can be transmitted from animals to humans as well as to other animals. M. bovis is a different type of bacteria to the bacteria M. tuberculosis, that is the type that usually causes disease in humans The disease is spread by contact between infected domestic animals such as cattle, and wild animals and humans. The usual route of infection is by animals and humans inhaling infected droplets which are expelled from the lungs by coughing. Infection can also occur from direct contact with a wound. For example, a wound that might happen during slaughter or hunting. It is also believed by most people that calves and humans can also become infected by ingesting raw (unpasteurized) milk and other dairy products from infected cows. Because the course of the disease is slow, an animal can spread the disease to many other herd mates before it begins to show clinical signs of disease. So movement of infected but undiagnosed domestic animals and contact with infected wild animals are the major ways of spreading the disease. Bovine TB is not treated in animals as the treatment for TB, which is the same as the treatment for TB in humans, takes too long and is uneconomic. Bovine TB in humans can be treated and cured. However, one complication is that M. bovis is always resistant to the TB drug pyrazinamide, although other first line TB drugs can still be used. Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. Faded or discolored skin lesions. Thick or dry skin. Severe pain. Numbness on affected areas of the skin. Treatment: Treatment of ketosis is aimed at reestablishing normoglycemia and reducing serum ketone body concentrations. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy.

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