Bishal Paul posted an Question
August 01, 2021 • 13:20 pm 30 points
  • Life Sciences

Explain the various physiological adaptation seen in thermophiles

Explain the various physiological adaptation seen in thermophiles. Describe it

1 Answer(s) Answer Now
  • Priya sarda best-answer

    Thermophiles are microscopic bacteria that have special features that allow them to live in very hot places. These are typically areas that are heated by volcanoes, such as hot springs and geysers. Also known as extremophiles, they don't just survive temperatures near boiling - they love them! In fact, the word ''thermophile'' literally means ''heat lover.'' These tiny organisms also contain unique pigments that make them appear in bright and stunning colors. So how do they survive the heat? The answer lies within the single cell of these tiny organisms. Cells, the building blocks of all living things, are like tiny factories. When the cells of most organisms are exposed to extremely hot conditions, they can no longer perform the work they must do to keep the organism alive. Like overheated cars, their machinery breaks down, and they die. Thermophiles are heat-loving, with an optimum growth temperature of 50o or more, a maximum of up to 70oC or more, and a minimum of about 20oC. Hyperthermophiles have an optimum above 75oC and thus can grow at the highest temperatures tolerated by any organism. Due to the unique nature of their environment, these thermophiles have adapted a number of different features to help them survive in extreme conditions. Among the advantages that come with increased temperature are higher reaction rates, higher solubility of most chemicals, and increased fluidity and diffusion rates. The thermophiles that thrive in these pools and their runoff channels are heat-loving microorganisms (also called microbes), some of which are descendants of the earliest lifeforms on Earth. ... Microbes harnessed energy stored in chemicals such as iron and hydrogen sulfide in a process called chemosynthesis. . Enzymes and other proteins of thermophiles often differ to some extent in their amino acid sequence from enzymes that catalyze the same reaction in mesophiles. It appears that a critical amino acid substitution in only a few locations in the enzyme of thermophiles allows it to fold in way that makes them much more stable to heat and, as a result, they function optimally at high temperatures. 2. Thermophiles typically possess lipids rich in saturated fatty acids in their cytoplasmic membranes thus allowing the membranes to remain stable and functional at high temperatures. Saturated fatty acids form a stronger hydrophobic environment than do unsaturated fatty acids. Such a hydrophobic environment helps for the membrane stability in thermophiles. 3. Heat stability of proteins in hyperthermophiles is also improved as a result of an increased number of ionic bonds between the positive and negative charges of various amino acids. This makes densely packed highly hydrophobic interiors of the proteins, which naturally resist unfolding of proteins in the aqueous cytoplasm. Also, the solutes di-inositol phosphate, diglycerol phosphate, and manosylglycerate that are produced in high amounts in the cytoplasm of certain hyperthermophiles help stabilise their proteins against thermal degradation


Do You Want Better RANK in Your Exam?

Start Your Preparations with Eduncle’s FREE Study Material

  • Updated Syllabus, Paper Pattern & Full Exam Details
  • Sample Theory of Most Important Topic
  • Model Test Paper with Detailed Solutions
  • Last 5 Years Question Papers & Answers