Inushaa posted an Question
October 26, 2021 • 15:49 pm 30 points
  • CSIR NET
  • Life Sciences

Write about any 5 major disease conditions in cows and mention how they affect the milk yield. discuss about symptoms and measures taken to treat or present the

Write about any 5 major disease conditions in cows and mention how they affect the milk yield. Discuss about symptoms and measures taken to treat or present the disease.

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  • Priya sarda

    Anhrax, a highly infectious and fatal disease of cattle, is caused by a relatively large spore-forming rectangular shaped bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax causes acute mortality in ruminants. The bacteria produce extremely potent toxins which are responsible for the ill effects, causing a high mortality rate. Signs of the illness usually appear 3 to 7 days after the spores are swallowed or inhaled. Once signs begin in animals, they usually die within two days. Hoofed animals, such as deer, cattle, goats, and sheep, are the main animals affected by this disease. They usually get the disease by swallowing anthrax spores while grazing on pasture contaminated (made impure) with anthrax spores. Inhaling (breathing in) the spores, which are odorless, colorless, and tasteless, may also cause infection in animals and people. Symptoms: Sudden death (often within 2 or 3 hours of being apparently normal) is by far the most common sign; Very occasionally some animals may show trembling, a high temperature Difficulty breathing, collapse and convulsions before death. This usually occurs over a period of 24 hours; After death blood, may not clot, resulting in a small amount of bloody discharge from the nose, mouth and other openings Treatment and control Due to the acute nature of the disease resulting in sudden death, treatment is usually not possible in animals even though Anthrax bacilli are clines. Treatment is of use in cases showing sub-acute form of the disease. In most cases, early treatment can cure anthrax. The cutaneous (skin) form of anthrax can be treated with common antibiotics. Preventive measures: Regular annual vaccination of animals in endemic areas will prevent the disease from occurring. Vaccination may be carried out at least a month prior to expected disease occurrence in endemic areas. Never open a carcass of an animal suspected to have died from anthrax. Black quarter (black-leg) It is an acute infectious and highly fatal, bacterial disease of cattle. Buffaloes, sheep and goats are also affected. Young cattle between 6-24 months of age, in good body condition are mostly affected. It is soil-borne infection which generally occurs during rainy season. In India, the disease is sporadic (1-2 animal) in nature. Causal organism: it is a bacterial disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei Symptoms: Fever (106-108°F), Loss of appetite, Depression and dullness Suspended rumination Rapid pulse and heart rates Difficult breathing (dyspnoea) Lameness in affected leg Crepitation swelling over hip, back & shoulder Swelling is hot & painful in early stages whereas cold and painless inter. Recumbency (prostration) followed by death within 12-48 hrs. Treatment: Early treatment can be possible to complete cure of the animal. Consult with veterinarian immediately. Ethnovet practice : The following measure is to be taken up in the month of May / June every year. Exudates of thirugukalli (Euphorbia tirucalli), kodikalli (Sareostemma brevistigma), aththi (Ficus racemosa), banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis), madara (Calotropis gigantea) are taken at the rate of 1 to 15 drops each in a stainless-steel vessel and mixed with 50 ml of sesame oil and ragi flour are added and made into a paste. This paste is applied as dot (coin size) in each animal in the groin region. (the above material may be used for about 50 animals). Foot and mouth disease The foot-and-mouth disease is a highly communicable disease affecting cloven-footed animals. It is characterized by fever, formation of vesicles and blisters in the mouth, udder, teats and on the skin between the toes and above the hoofs. Animals recovered from the disease present a characteristically rough coat and deformation of the hoof. In India, the disease is widespread and assumes a position of importance in livestock industry. The disease spreads by direct contact or indirectly through infected water, manure, hay and pastures. It is also conveyed by cattle attendants. It is known to spread through recovered animals, field rats, porcupines and birds. Symptoms fever with 104-105o F profuse salivation - ropes of stringy saliva hangs from mouth vesicles appear in mouth and in the inter digital space lameness observed cross bred cattle are highly susceptible to it Treatment the external application of antiseptics contributes to the healing of the ulcers and wards off attacks by flies. a common and inexpensive dressing for the lesions in the feet is a mixture of coal-tar and copper sulphate in the proportion of 5:1. Precautions heavy milch animals and exotic breeds of cattle bred for milk should be protected regularly. it is advisable to carry out two vaccinations at an interval of six months followed by an annual vaccination programme. isolation and segregation of sick animals. It should be informed immediately to the veterinary doctor disinfection of animal sheds with bleaching powder or phenol attendants and equipment’s for sick animals should be ideally separate the equipment’s should be thoroughly sanitized proper disposal of left over feed by the animal proper disposal of carcasses control of flies Ethnovet prevention practice: When there is a outbreak in the nearby villages /surroundings take tulasi (Ocimum sp) leaves 100 gm, a pinch of common salt and turmeric rhizome 2 pieces and grind them. This has to be squeezed to obtain extract and administered orally. The residues left over can be used for smearing over the mouth region, foot region. This is repeated. Rabies in sheep, goats and cattle Rabies is characterised by the animals becoming restless and excited. They may bite themselves and saliva drips from the mouth. The most important sign in cattle is that the animal bellows (calls) very frequently and with strange sound. The animals will become paralysed and die. Listeriosis Transmission : The organisms are excreted in the faeces, urine, aborted foetuses, uterine discharge and milk of infected animals. The organisms are sufficiently resistant to remain viable in animal and human faeces, sewage, soil, silage and dust foe several weeks and months. The blood sucking arthropods may spread infection since organisms have been isolated from cattle ticks and tabanid flies. Under natural conditions certain predisposing factors are related to clinical infection. Symptoms : In farm animals the disease occurs towards the end of winter or early spring. The first signs of meningo- encephalitis are stiffness of neck, incoordinated movement of limbs and tendency to move in circles or to lean against a fence or wall. There may be paralysis of muscles of jaw and pharynx. Incoordination becomes progressively more severe until the animal can no longer stand. The cattle which are not severely affected may survive. Abortions in cattle usually occur after 4-8 months of pregnancy and at a comparatively later stage in sheep. In pigs and horses, clinical signs are not common but may develop as encephalitis and septicaemia. In poultry, the disease usually causes sudden death, occasionally there are signs of torticollis, weakness and inco-ordination of the legs. Treatment : Tetracyclines are very effective in meningo-encephalities of cattle less so in sheep. The recovery rate depends on the speed with which the treatment is commenced. Control : When outbreaks occur all affected animals should be slaughtered and buried along with litter and bedding. The vaccines, living or killed, have little effect on the pathogenesis of infection under natural conditions, tetracycline’s are very effective for treatment of listeriosis. Diseases may affect dairy productivity through lowered milk yield, reduced fertility, delays in reaching puberty, reduced milk quality and reduced feed conversion. Diseases of dairy animals may also represent a risk for human health (e.g., tuberculosis, brucellosis).

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