Science provides the answer as to how to perform certain operations in order to secure given ends. But such knowledge is a two-edged sword. The same processes that led to the manufacture of aniline dyes set in motion physiological processes that ended in death for many of those who helped manufacture the dyes. The development of superior methods of keeping records, basis to the growth of social science, may also be the means of strengthening the grip of a repressive political dictatorship. Today the use of radioactive-isotope therapy promises much for the reduction of disease, but these isotopes are products of the same scientific knowledge which produced the atomic bomb and which has made possible the even more destructive hydrogen bomb. Science as a method gives power, but this is a power which may be used for disapproved as well as approved ends.
Science, then can (1) offer a method of solving problems, i.e., of achieving values; (2) offer alternative methods, so that relatives costs can be calculated; (3) provide a means for predicting what the order consequences of a given course of action may be. If, for example, it is desired to clear a slum, it is good to be able not only to predict the financial and emotional costs of the specific program but also to know what other effects the slum clearance will have upon the community, This is a task to which only the scientific method may be successful applied.
Since science operates as a technique of problem solving, and since problems in this sense are formulated upon the basis of value judgements, then it is clear science and values are interrelated.
Which kind of process led to death for many who helped manufacture of the dyes?