Mansipare posted an Question
October 18, 2021 • 23:04 pm 30 points
  • Biotechnology (BT)

What's read chemical mechanics

what's read chemical mechanics in physics.. biotechnology

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    Physics - Physical World and Measurement, Kinematics, Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and Power, Electrostatics, Current electricity, Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current, Electromagnetics waves, Optics, Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations, Atomic Nucleus, Solids and Semiconductor Devices, Principles of Communication, Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body, Gravitation, Mechanics of Solids and Fluids, Heat and Thermodynamics, Oscillations, Waves. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Basic Mathematical Concepts: Differential equations, vectors and matrices. Atomic Structure: Fundamental particles. Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom; Wave-particle duality; Uncertainty principles; Schrodinger’s wave equation; Quantum numbers, shapes of orbitals; Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle. Theory of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law; Equipartition of energy. Chemical Thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes; First law and its application to ideal and nonideal gases; Thermochemistry; Second law; Entropy and free energy, Criteria for spontaneity. Chemical and Phase Equilibria: Law of mass action; Kp , Kc, Kx and Kn ; Effect of temperature on K; Ionic equilibria in solutions; pH and buffer solutions; Hydrolysis; Solubility product; Phase equilibria–Phase rule and its application to one-component and two-component systems; Colligative properties. Electrochemistry: Conductance and its applications; Transport number; Galvanic cells; EMF and Free energy; Concentration cells with and without transport; Polarography. Chemical Kinetics: Reactions of various order, Arrhenius equation, Collision theory; Theory of absolute reaction rate; Chain reactions – Normal and branched chain reactions; Enzyme kinetics; Photophysical and photochemical processes; Catalysis. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry: Isomerism and nomenclature, electronic (resonance and inductive) effects. Optical isomerism in compounds containing one and two asymmetric centers, designation of absolute configuration, conformations of cyclohexanes. Aromaticity and Huckel’s rule: Mono and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Organic Reaction Mechanism and Synthetic Applications: Methods of preparation and reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes and their simple functional derivatives. Mechanism and synthetic applications of electrophilic aromatic substitution. Stereochemistry and mechanism of aliphatic nucleophilic substitution and elimination reactions. Mechanism of aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, esterification and ester hydrolysis, Cannizzaro reaction, benzoin condensation. Perkin reaction, Claisen rearrangement, Beckmann rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. Synthesis of simple molecules using standard reactions of organic chemistry. Grignard reagents, acetoacetic and malonic ester chemistry. Natural Products Chemistry: Introduction to the following classes of compounds-alkaloids, terpenes, carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids. Heterocyclic Chemistry: Monocyclic compounds with one hetero atom. Qualitative Organic Analysis: Functional group interconversions, structural problems using chemical reactions, identification of functional groups by chemical tests. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Periodic Table: Periodic classification of elements and periodicity in properties; general methods of isolation and purification of elements. Chemical Bonding and Shapes of Compounds: Types of bonding; VSEPR theory and shapes of molecules; hybridization; dipole moment; ionic solids; structure of NaCl, CsCl, diamond and graphite; lattice energy. Main Group Elements (s and p blocks): Chemistry with emphasis on group relationship and gradation in properties; structure of electron deficient compounds of main group elements and application of main group elements. Transition Metals (d block): Characteristics of 3d elements; oxide, hydroxide and salts of first row metals; coordination complexes; VB and Crystal Field theoretical approaches for structure, colour and magnetic properties of metal complexes. Analytical Chemistry: Principles of qualitative and quantitative analysis; acid-base, oxidation-reduction and precipitation reactions; use of indicators; use of organic reagents in inorganic analysis; radioactivity; nuclear reactions; applications of isotopes. PHYSICS SECTION Mechanics and General Properties of Matter: Newton’s laws of motion and applications, Kepler’s laws, Gravitational Law and field, Conservative and non-conservative forces. System of particles, Centre of mass, equation of motion of the CM, conservation of linear and angular momentum, conservation of energy. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Rigid body motion, fixed axis rotations, rotation and translation, moments of Inertia and products of Inertia. Principal moments and axes. Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solid, stress energy. Kinematics of moving fluids, equation of continuity, Euler’s equation, Bernoulli’s theorem, viscous fluids, surface tension and surface energy, capillarity. Oscillations, Waves and Optics: Differential equation for simple harmonic oscillator and its general solution. Superposition of two or more simple harmonic oscillators. Lissajous figures. Damped and forced oscillators, resonance. Wave equation, traveling and standing waves in one-dimension. Energy density and energy transmission in waves. Group velocity and phase velocity. Sound waves in media. Doppler Effect. Fermat’s Principle. General theory of image formation. Thick lens, thin lens and lens combinations. Interference of light, optical path retardation. Fraunhofer diffraction. Rayleigh criterion and resolving power. Diffraction gratings. Polarization: linear, circular and elliptic polarization. Double refraction and optical rotation. Electricity and Magnetism: Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law. Concept of Potential, Field and Boundary Conditions, Solution of Laplace’s equation for simple cases. Conductors, capacitors, dielectrics, dielectric polarization, volume and surface charges, electrostatic energy. Magnetic susceptibility, Bar magnet, Earth’s magnetic field and its elements. Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Lenz’s law, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents. Simple DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components. Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations and plane electromagnetic waves. Lorentz Force and motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. Kinetic theory, Thermodynamics: Elements of Kinetic theory of gases. Velocity distribution and Equipartition of energy. Specific heat of Mono-, di- and tri-atomic gases. Ideal gas, Van-der-Waals gas and equation of state. Mean free path. Laws of thermodynamics. Zeroeth law and concept of thermal equilibrium. First law of thermodynamics and its consequences. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Reversible, irreversible and quasi-static processes. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot cycle. Modern Physics: Blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Bohr’s atomic model, X-rays. Wave-particle duality, Uncertainty principle, Pauli exclusion principle, Structure of atomic nucleus, mass and binding energy.  Radioactivity and its applications. Laws of radioactive decay and half life, Fission and fusion Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics: Crystal structure, Bravais lattices and basis. Miller indices. X-ray diffraction and Bragg’s law, Origin of energy bands. Concept of holes. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. p-n junctions, transistors. Amplifier circuits with transistors.


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